there are many types of detectors developed. now is mostly electronic and able to collect huge amount of data.
there are 3 main principles on particle detection.
- by the ionization between particle and gas
- by the excitation of energy level
- by the detection of photon
There are 5 main categories:
- Scintillator – small time resolution but only rough spatial resolution
- Gaseous counter/wire chamber – small spatial resolution, combine with magnetic field can measure momentum
- Semiconductor counter – good energy and spatial resolution
- Cherenkov counter – particle identification by transition radiation
- Calorimeter – total energy at very high energy.
here is a diagram from WIKI, which summarized