in scattering experiment,  the raw informations we can know or observe are only few things:

  1. the number of particles counted at particular solid angle. ( when you have a unit sphere, the area on the surface is called solid angle)
  2. The polarization (spin)
  3. charge
  4. energy
  5. momentum (time of flight)

Since the number of particles counted is related to the intensity of the incident beam, the density of the target, the interaction and the differential cross section.

on the other hand, the number of particles counted should be related to intensity of incident beam, density of the target and interaction potential. Thus, the differential cross section is related to the interaction potential.

The polarization can be measured by 2nd scattering of known polarization target. or directly from a polarized primary target. or by a polarized beam.

For a nucleus there are 12 properties, and we can group them into 2, 1 is static properties, another is dynamic properties.

Static properties


  1. mass
  2. radius
  3. spin
  4. parity


  1. relative abundance
  2. decay half-live
  3. magnetic dipole
  4. electric quadrapole

Dynamic properties

  1. decay modes
  2. reaction mode
  3. cross section
  4. excited state

Of course, the final goal of nuclear physics is find the Hamiltonian for governing the motion of nuclear matter. Thus, we can base on the intrinsic static properties, to deduced the extrinsic and dynamic properties.

think about in atomic physics, we know the potential, the spin, then we can give out every things, like the radius, parity, decay half-live, cross section, etc….

so, the nuclear Hamiltonian is the KEY to open the door of understanding of nuclear matter.