the angular momentum has 2 kinds – orbital angular momentum $L$, which is caused by a charged particle executing orbital motion, since there are 3 dimension space. and spin $S$, which is an internal degree of freedom to let particle “orbiting” at there.

thus, a general quantum state for a particle should not just for the spatial part and the time part. but also the spin, since a complete state should contains all degree of freedom.

$\left| \Psi \right> = \left| x,t \right> \bigotimes \left| s \right>$

when we “add” the orbital angular momentum and the spin together, actually, we are doing:

$J = L \bigotimes 1 + 1 \bigotimes S$

where the 1 with L is the identity of the spin-space and the 1 with S is the identity of the 3-D space.

the above was discussed on J.J. Sakurai’s book.

the mathematics of $L$ and $S$ are completely the same at rotation operator.

$R_J (\theta) = Exp( - \frac {i}{\hbar} \theta J)$

where $J$ can be either $L$ or $S$.

the $L$ can only have effect on spatial state while $S$ can only have effect on the spin-state. i.e:

$R_L(\theta) \left| s \right> = \left| s\right>$

$R_S(\theta) \left| x \right> = \left| x\right>$

the $L_z$ can only have integral value but $S_z$ can be both half-integral and integral. the half-integral value of $Sz$ makes the spin-state have to rotate 2 cycles in order to be the same again.

thus, if the different of $L$ and $S$ is just man-made. The degree of freedom in the spin-space is actually by some real geometry on higher dimension. and actually, the orbital angular momentum can change the spin state:

$L \left| s \right> = \left | s' \right > = c \left| s \right>$

but the effect is so small and

$R_L (\theta) \left| s\right > = Exp( - \frac {i}{\hbar} \theta c )\left| s \right>$

but the c is very small, but if we can rotate the state for a very large angle, the effect of it can be seen by compare to the rotation by spin.

$\left < R_L(\omega t) + R_S(\omega t) \right> = 2 ( 1+ cos ( \omega ( c -1 ) t)$

the experiment can be done as follow. we apply a rotating magnetic field at the same frequency as the Larmor frequency. at a very low temperature, the spin was isolated and $T_1$ and $T_2$ is equal to $\infty$. the different in the c will come up at very long time measurement and it exhibit a interference pattern.

if $c$ is a complex number, it will cause a decay, and it will be reflected in the interference pattern.

if we find out this c, then we can reveal the other spacial dimension!

___________________________________

the problem is. How can we act the orbital angular momentum on the spin with out the effect of spin angular momentum? since L and S always coupled.

one possibility is make the S zero. in the system of electron and positron. the total spin is zero.

another possibility is act the S on the spatial part. and this will change the energy level.

__________________________________

an more fundamental problem is, why L and S commute? the possible of writing this

$\left| \Psi \right> = \left| x,t \right> \bigotimes \left| s \right>$

is due to the operators are commute to each other. by why?

if we break down the L in to position operator x and momentum operator p, the question becomes, why x and S commute or p and S commute?

$[x,S]=0 ?$

$[p,S]=0 ?$

$[p_x, S_y] \ne 0 ?$

i will prove it later.

___________________________________

another problem is, how to evaluate the Poisson bracket? since L and S is not same dimension. may be we can write the eigenket in vector form:

$\begin {pmatrix} \left|x, t \right> \\ \left|s\right> \end {pmatrix}$

i am not sure.

___________________________________

For any vector operator, it must satisfy following equation, due to rotation symmetry.

$[V_i, J_j] = i \hbar V_k$   run in cyclic

Thus,

where J is rotation operator. but i am not sure is it restricted to real space rotation. any way, spin is a vector operator, thus

$latex [S_x, L_y] = i \hbar S_z = – [S_y, L_x]$

so, L, S is not commute.