In order to convert the NMR single to the absolute magnetic field strength of the polarization. the thermal polarization ( polarization at thermal equilibrium ) should be measure and used to calibrate the NMR signal.

the thermal polarization is given by the Boltzmann statistic. The excited and the ground state population is:

\frac{ N_{\uparrow}} { N_{\downarrow} } = Exp \left( - 2 \frac { \mu_p B } {k_B T } \right)

the thermal polarization is the ratio of the different of spin-up and spin-down to the total spin.

P_{thermal} (B , T ) = tanh \left( \frac{ \mu_p B }{ k_B T } \right)

where \mu=p is the proton magnetic moment.

\mu_p = g_p \mu_N = g_p \frac{e \hbar }{2 m_p} = 1.410606662 \times 10^{-26} J T^{-1}

k_B is the Boltzmann constant.

k_B = 1.3806504 \times 10^{-23} J K^{-1}

The proton magnetic moment is small, the thermal polarization can be approximated as a linear function:

P_{thermal} ( B, T) = \frac{\mu_p B}{ k_B T}

since our polarization is on T = -5 ^oC  and B = 0.05 T , thus, the thermal polarization is:

P_{thermal} (0.05, 268.15) = 1.90509 \times 10^{-7}

which is very small to be detected, or to say, the signal is smaller then the noise level.

the small system has a better sensitivity, down to 10^{-7}.



  • Connect the Static field power and water cooling system
  • connect the Controler Unit
  • connect the magnetic field sweeping
  • Test Run