this paper was written on 1949. at that time, deuteron just discovered 20 years. this paper presents a method on detecting the diffraction cross section of the neutron from a disintegrated deuteron by gamma ray of energy 2.76MeV. and by this, they found the photo-magnetic to photo-electric cross section ration. the ratio is 0.295 ± 0.036.

the photo-electric dipole transition and photo-magnetic dipole transition can both be induced by the gamma ray. Photo carry 1 angular momentum, the absorption of photon will excited the spherical ground state $^1S$ into $^3P$. the 2 mechanisms of the disintegrations results 2 angular distributions of the neutrons. by examine the angular distribution, they find out the ratio.

the photo-magnetic cross section is isotropic and the photo-electric cross section is follow a of a $sin^2$ distribution. the average intensity of neutron detected on a angle is:

$I(\gamma ) = \int_{\gamma_1}^{\gamma_2} {(a + b sin^2(\gamma)) sin(\gamma) d\gamma } / \int_{\gamma_1}^{\gamma_2} {sin(\gamma) d\gamma }$

where a is the contribution from the photo-magnetic interaction and b is from photo-electric interaction. and $\gamma_1$ and $\gamma_2$ are the angle span by the finite size of the target and detector. the integration is straight forward and result is:

$I(\gamma) = a+b( 1 - 1/3 ( cos^2(\gamma_1) + cos(\gamma_1) cos(\gamma_2) + cos^2 ( \gamma_2) )$

and the author guided us to use the ration of 2 angle to find the ration of a and b. and the ration of a and b is related to the probability of the magnetic to the electric effect by

$a/b = 2/3 \tau$

. and the photo-magnetic to photo-electric cross section ratio is:

$\tau/(\tau+1)$

the detector was described in detail on 4 paragraphs. basically, it is a cylindrical linear detector base on the reaction $B^{10} ( n,\alpha)Li^7$. it was surrounded by paraffin to slow down fast nuetrons.

on the target, which is heavy water, $D_2 O$, they use an extraordinary copper toriod or donut shape container. it is based on 3 principles:

• The internal scattering of neutron
• Departure from point source
• The angular opening of the γ – ray source

they place the γ – ray source along the axis of the toriod, move it along to create different scattering angle.

they tested the internal scattering of the inside the toriod and found that it is nothing, the toriod shape does not have significant internal scattering.

they test the reflection of neutron form surrounding, base on the deviation from the inverse-square law. and finally, they hang up there equipment about 27meters from the ground and 30 meters from buildings walls. (their apparatus’s size is around 2 meters. They measured 45, 60, 75 and 90 degree intensity with 5 degree angular opening for each.