On NMR signal

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The NMR signal is obtained by the coil, which also generate the Rabi field or a radio frequency to flip the spin.

the origin of the NMR signal is the transverse magnetization. for spin-½ system. the transverse component of the magnetization is:

M_T = ( M_x, M_y ) = A ( cos(\omega_0 t), sin(\omega_0 t))

where A is the amplitude and \omega_0 is the Larmor frquency. for consistency and cross reference in this blog, i keep the 0 with the \omega .

the magnetization is proportional a changing magnetic field. a changing magnetic field will induce an e.m.f on a coil. if the coil is perpendicular to an oscillating magnetic field a maximum e.m.f will be obtained. however, since the magnetization is rotating, the coil can be point at any direction to give the same e.m.f. . without lost of generality, the coil will define the x-axis of the system.

B = B_{NMR} ( cos (\omega_0 t ), sin ( \omega_0 t) )

and the Maxwell’s equation:

\nabla \times E = \frac { d}{dt} B

\nabla \times E = B_{NMR} \omega_0 ( - sin (\omega_0 t), cos(\omega_0 t))

we can see that the amplitude of the E field in the coil, which is the NMR signal strength, is depending on the Larmor frequency \omega_0 . That explained why NMR always looking for strong magnetic field, now can go to 22 Tesla ( earth magnetic field is just 5 \times 10^{-5} Tesla ), a higher magnetic field strength, the higher Larmor frequency, and a stronger signal.

Moreover, the magnetic field produced by the sample is proportional to number of NMR center, the polarization and a factor on how the spin ensemble to combine to be a giant single field. and also, the change of the flux of the NMR coil is depends on how the area was integrated. These all factor are not just related to the NMR coil but also on the particular sample.

detail treatment on Larmor Precession and Rabi Resonance

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a treatment on Larmor Precession and Rabi resonance

the pdf is a work on this topic. it goes through Larmor Precession and give example on spin-½ and spin-1 system.

then it introduce Density matrix and gives some example.

The Rabi resonance was treated by rotating frame method and using density matrix on discussion.

the last topic is on the relaxation.

the purpose of study it extensively, is the understanding on NMR.

the NMR signal is the transverse component of the magnetization.

on Relaxation in NMR

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If we only switch on the transverse magnetic field for some time \tau . after the field is off, the system will go back to the thermal equilibrium. it is due to the system is not completely isolated.

instead of consider a single spin, we have to consider the ensemble. and an ensemble is describe by the density matrix.

the reason for not consider a single spin state is, we don’t know what is going on for individual spin. in fact, in the previous section, the magnetization is a Marco effect. a single spin cannot have so many states, it can only have 2 states – up or down. if we insist the above calculation is on one spin, thus, it only give the chance for having that direction of polarization. which, is from many measurements.

so, for a single spin, the spin can only have 2 states. and if the transverse B field frequency is not equal to the Larmor frequency , and the pule is not a π-pulse, the spin has chance to go to the other state, which probability is given by a formula. and when it goes to relax back to the minimum energy state, it will emit a photon. but when it happen, we don’t know, it is a complete random process.

However, an ensemble, a collection of spins, we can have some statistic on it. for example, the relaxation time, T1 and T2.