in Nuclear physics, the particle we deal with are so small and so light, if we use standard unit, then there will be many zero and we will lost in the zeros. for example, the electron has mass:
Mass( electron ) = 9.11 × 10-31 kilograms
Mass( proton ) = 1.67 × 10-27 kilograms
see? as the special relativity give us a translation tool – E = m c^2, thus, we can use MeV to talk about mass.
Mass ( electron ) = 0.511 MeV
Mass ( proton ) = 938.3 MeV
thus, we can see, Proton is roughtly 2000 times heavier then electron ( 1000 : 0.5 ).
Mass( neutron ) = 939.6 MeV
neutron is just 1.3 MeV heavier then proton.
The nucleus is formed by proton and neutron. so, in simple thought, an nucleus with Z proton and ( A-Z ) neutron should have mass
Z x Mass( proton ) + ( A – Z ) x Mass ( neutron ) = Mass ( A, Z )
where A is the atomic mass number, which is equal the number of nucleons in the nucleus, and Z is the proton number.
However, scientists found that it is not true.
Z x Mass( proton ) + ( A – Z ) x Mass ( neutron ) > Mass ( A, Z )
Some of the mass is missing! But that is explained why nucleus will not break down automatically. since it need extra energy to break it down.
we called the mass different is Mass Deficit. or Binding energy.
Mass Deficit = Mass( A, Z) – Mass ( proton + neutron )
some one may think that the binding energy is the energy for holding the nucleus together. in order to hold the nucleus, some mass was converted into the energy to holding it. this is INCORRECT. the correct argument is, the binding energy is th energy require to break it down.
think about a simple 2 bodies system, like sun and earth. at far far away, when both of them are at rest, the total energy is Mass( sun) + Mass ( earth ) + Potential energy.
when the earth moves toward to sun, the potential energy converted to the Kinetic energy, so the earth moving faster and faster. but, in order to stay in the orbit, some K.E. must be lost so that it does not have enough ( or the same) energy to run away. Thus, the total energy of the system is lesser then the total mass.
another analogy is electron orbit. when an electron was captured by an atom, it radiate energy in order to stay in some energy level. thus, the total energy of the system again less then the total mass.
any any case, the mass of the sun and earth and electron does not change, but the potential changes to negative, thus it makes to total energy lesser.
similar idea hold for nucleus, but the potential of it are great different, because there are a Coulomb Barrier. Thus, in order to make a nucleus. we have to put so many K.E. to again this barrier, then the resultant nucleus release the Mass Deficit energy and also the input K.E..
|a scratch on the nuclear potential. there are a Coulomb Barrie. ( by wolframalpha.com)
When the nucleus is radioactive and undergoes decay. this mean, it Mass deficit is positive. thus, it will automatically break down to another nucleus until it mass deficit is negative again. during this process, the emitted particle carry K.E. which is from the potential. Not the mass for one nucleons.
Remember, Mass( nucleus ) = Mass ( protons + neutrons ) + Potential