symmetry breaking, mass and higg field.

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Above curie temperature, the spin of iron is isotropic. The spin can be rotated to any direction without any resistance, they like massless. Below curie temp, the iron has phase transition and all spin now point to a particular direction. And we need some force to rotate the spin direction. The spin has mass now. This is what symmetry breaking in simple manner.

When matter becomes superconduct, the magnetic field inside is decay exponentially,which is similar as Yukawa force. And we said the force carrier particle is massive. The magnetic field decay is due to the copper pair, Which respond to the magnetic field and tend to cancel it. Thus, the direction of copper pair is not isotropic and this is another symmetry breaking due to the external field and low temperature.

At very high temperature, the weak force carriers are massless. And we assign an isotropic field (scaler field) for the force carrier and call it Higg field. The Higg field quata is called Higg boson. It act like the copper pair, which respond with the force carrier. When there is a force carrier, a Higg boson will be induced. And the symmetric breaking in Higg field, the symmetry breaking makes the force carrier has mass. That we need to apply a force to change the motion.

Mass measurement

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there are 2 ways to measure the mass of nucleus. one is by mass spectroscopy, the other one is from nuclear reaction.

Mass Spectroscopy

the mass spectrometer contains 2 parts. the particles first enter a constant E-field. they will be separated into different radius  according to their kinetic energy by formular:

r_E = \frac {m }{q} \frac{ v^2}{E}

after, they will enter a region of constant B field, and the radius will further separated according to their momentum.

r_M = \frac {m}{q} \frac { v }{B}

another way is, Particles first passed a velocity filter by perpendicular electric field and magnetic filed. then use either the electric field and magnetic field to separate them. but this method will reduced the intensity of the beam, due to the velocity filter.

Nuclear reaction

the basic idea of this method is the energy conservation and binding energy will converted to kinetic energy. there are many different way to do so, but the principle is that.

one example is neutron capture by proton :

n + p \rightarrow D + \gamma

the binding energy is:

B.E. = m_n + m_p - m_D

Deuteron

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The deuteron is the nucleus that contains 1 proton and 1 neutron. The spin and isospin of proton and neutron are the same, both are equal to half.  It is the only stable state for 2 nucleons. Deuteron provides an unique aspect to study the inter nuclear force. The strong force are believed to be charge independent. Thus, the strong force can be more easily to study on deuteron due to the absent of other force or eliminate from the Coulomb force, which is understood very much.

The mass of deuteron is 1876.1244MeV. The binding energy is then 2.2245MeV. It was determined by the slow neutron capture of a proton. The emitted gamma ray is approximately equal to the binding energy and the deuteron mass was calculated.

Deuteron has no excited state. It is because any excitation will easily to make the system break apart.

The parity is positive from experiment. If we separate the deuteron wavefunction into 3 parts. The proton wavefunction, neutron wavefunction and the orbital wavefunction. Under the only force, the strong force in this system, proton and neutron are the same nucleon with different state. Thus, the parity are the same for proton and neutron. So, the product of these 2 wavefunction always has positive parity. The total parity then is solely given by the angular orbital.

Any orbital wave function can be represented by the spherical harmonic, Y(l,m) .

The parity transform is changing it to

Y(l,m) \rightarrow (-1)^l Y(l,m)

So, the experimental face of positive parity fixed the angular momentum must be even.

Ok, we just predicted the possible angular momentum from parity.

The experimental fact on spin is 1. Since J = L + S, and the value of J can take every integer from |L-S| to L + S. and L must be even. The spin of proton and neutron is 1/2. Thus the possible S is 0 or 1 ( we are using L-S coupling scheme ). J = 1 = L + S , that tell us S must be odd to give out 1 for an even L. Thus S=1. So, the only possible L is 0 and 1. Thus, the possible state of deuteron is (L,S) = (0,1) or (2,1). Therefore, a deuteron is a mixed state, if without any further argument.

Now, 2 out of 3 parts of the wave function symmetry were determined by symmetry argument. The isospin can now be fixed by the 2 fermions state must be antisymmetry. The spatial state symmetry is even by L = 0 or 2. And for the state (L , S) = ( 0, 1 ), the spin state is symmetric. Thus, the isospin must be antisymmetric. Since the algebra for isospin and spin are the same. We use T = 0 for the isospin. Thus a complete wavefunction is ( L , S , T ) = ( 0 , 1, 0 ). For the other possible state (L , S) = ( 2 , 1 ) , we can use same argument for isospin state. And for the degenerated state with Ms = +1, 0, -1. By the symmetry of the raising and lowering ladder operator, they all preserved the symmetry. Thus, the Ms = 0 state can only be the + state.

So, we now have 2 possible states of deuteron. If the hamiltonian is commute with L^2 and  S^2, both L and L is a good quantum number and those states are eigen state. And the deuteron ground state must be one of them.

Stability of a nucleus ( Liquid Drop Model )

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when look at the table of the nuclear world, why there are some nucleus more stable then the other? which mean, why some will decay while some are not?

OK, this basically the ultimate question that nuclear physics want to answer.

so, the very fundamental reason, no one know.

but in the elementary level, or by experimental fact and some assumption. we have Binding Energy to estimate or predict the stability of a nucleus. when the Binding Energy is larger then Zero, it must be unstable and will decay under conservation laws. if it is less then zero, it may be stable or not, it depends on whether it reach the bottom of energy level.

Binding Energy can also be though as the energy required to break the nucleus.

In liquid drop model, we imagine the nucleus is like a liquid. and nucleons inside just like liquid molecules. experiments show that nucleus is a spherical object. and it density is a constant. and the interaction range of nuclear force is short, few fm. thus, it likes a incompressible liquid drop. the radius of it is related to the mass number:

R^3 = A

the Binding Energy ( = \Delta M(A,Z,N) = mass deficit) is given by theoretical assumption and experimental fact.

\Delta M(A,Z,N) = - a_1 A + a_2 A^{\frac {2}{3} } + a_3 Z^2 / A^{ \frac{1}{3}} + a_4 (N-Z)^2 /A \pm a_5 A^{- \frac{3}{4} }

the first 3 terms are theoretical assumption and the lat 2 terms are from experimental fact. All coefficients are given by experimental measurement.

The first term is the “volume energy” by the nuclear force, which is proportional to the number of nucleons.

the 2nd term is the “surface tension” from the “liquid”. we can see its dimension is area.  (why this term is + ? ) it  explained why smaller nucleus has less Binding energy.

the 3rd term is the Coulomb potential term.

the 4th term is the balance term.  if the number of neutron and proton is no balance,

the 5th term is the “Symmetry term“. for even-even of neutron and proton number, the nucleus is more stable, thus, we choose minus sign for it. for odd-odd combination, nucleus are more unstable, thus, plus sign for it. for other, like ood – even or even-odd combination, this term is zero.

the value of the coefficients are:

a_1 \simeq 15.6 MeV

a_2 \simeq 16.8 MeV

a_3 \simeq 0.72 MeV

a_4 \simeq 23.3 MeV

a_5 \simeq 34 MeV

The below plot is the Binding Energy per nucleon in  Z against N.

Lets use the liquid drop model and Binding Energy to look the β-decay. the β-decay conserved the mass number A. there are 2 β-decays.

\beta_- : n \rightarrow p + e^- + \bar{\nu_e}

\beta_+ : p \rightarrow n + e^+ + \nu_e

so, the β+ decay decrease the number of proton while β– decay increase the number of proton.

The below diagram show the β-decay for A = 22. we can see the 22Ne is stable, since no more β-decay can help to reach a lower energy level.

On mass deficit

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The mass deficit is due to the potential energy loss.

But, why there are potential?

Coz there is a force associate with a potential.

Or in more correct way, the potential energy is due to the force. When 2 bodies in space has a attractive force, then it naturally go together. And the force accelerate the body and increase their kinetic energy.

Thus, we think the force created a field, which stored potential energy. When the force accelerates body, the potential energy converted into kinetic energy.

Imagine there are 2 bodies, A & B, Which at different location and have different force. If A is further away, when it comes at B, it has more kinetic energy than B, coz B is at rest at that position. Thus, further away, higher the potential.

Can thus potential be as high as infinite? In reality, because thing has surface, has size. The minimum distance between the 2 bodies is the sum of their radius. And if we sum up all potential, from the surface to infinity. We found that it is finite. And we like to set the potential at infinity is zero. Thus, it makes all attractive force has negative potential.

But, electric and positron do not has size, so, and electron and a positron can come together and the potential energy they can release is infinite! Since when they are apart infinite and the attractive force accelerate it, when they meet, their speed will be infinite!

Wait! The speed cannot be infinite, the highest speed is the speed of light and for an object has mass, it never move at the speed of light!

So, when electron and positron hit each other from infinity. However, relativity does not limit the energy and the kinetic energy. The result is, it can release infinite energy.

But at first, infinite exist. In reality, we can just approximate the “infinite” by far far away. When the potential change very little. But far far away is still very short compare to infinite. Thus, we don’t have infinite energy source.

In laboratory, we can accelerate electron and position at very high speed and contain several GeV. Thus when those particles annihilate, they release GeV energy due to the kinetic energy and their mass, which is just 0.000511GeV. Does not help much.

 

Mass of particles and nucleus

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in Nuclear physics, the particle we deal with are so small and so light, if we use standard unit, then there will be many zero and we will lost in the zeros. for example, the electron has mass:

Mass( electron ) = 9.11 × 10-31 kilograms
Mass( proton ) = 1.67 × 10-27 kilograms

see? as the special relativity give us a translation tool – E = m c^2, thus, we can use MeV to talk about mass.

Mass ( electron ) = 0.511 MeV
Mass ( proton ) = 938.3 MeV

thus, we can see, Proton is roughtly 2000 times heavier then electron ( 1000 : 0.5 ).

Mass( neutron ) = 939.6 MeV

neutron is just 1.3 MeV heavier then proton.

The nucleus is formed by proton and neutron. so, in simple thought, an nucleus with Z proton and ( A-Z ) neutron should have mass

Z x Mass( proton ) + ( A – Z ) x Mass ( neutron ) = Mass ( A, Z )

where A is the atomic mass number, which is equal the number of nucleons in the nucleus, and Z is the proton number.

However, scientists found that it is not true.

Z x Mass( proton ) + ( A – Z ) x Mass ( neutron ) > Mass ( A, Z )

Some of the mass is missing! But that is explained why nucleus will not break down automatically. since it need extra energy to break it down.

we called the mass different is Mass Deficit. or Binding energy.

Mass Deficit = Mass( A, Z) – Mass ( proton + neutron )

some one may think that the binding energy is the energy for holding the nucleus together. in order to hold the nucleus, some mass was converted into the energy to holding it. this is INCORRECT. the correct argument is, the binding energy is th energy require to break it down.

think about a simple 2 bodies system, like sun and earth. at far far away, when both of them are at rest, the total energy is Mass( sun) + Mass ( earth ) + Potential energy.

when the earth moves toward to sun, the potential energy converted to the Kinetic energy, so the earth moving faster and faster. but, in order to stay in the orbit, some K.E. must be lost so that it does not have enough ( or the same) energy to run away. Thus, the total energy of the system is lesser then the total mass.

another analogy is electron orbit. when an electron was captured by an atom, it radiate energy in order to stay in some energy level. thus, the total energy of the system again less then the total mass.

any any case, the mass of the sun and earth and electron does not change, but the potential changes to negative, thus it makes to total energy lesser.

similar idea hold for nucleus, but the potential of it are great different, because there are a Coulomb Barrier. Thus, in order to make a nucleus. we have to put so many K.E. to again this barrier, then the resultant nucleus release the Mass Deficit energy and also the input K.E..

a scratch on the nuclear potential. there are a Coulomb Barrie. ( by wolframalpha.com)
When the nucleus is radioactive and undergoes decay. this mean, it Mass deficit is positive. thus, it will automatically break down to another nucleus until it mass deficit is negative again. during this process, the emitted particle carry K.E. which is from the potential. Not the mass for one nucleons.
Remember, Mass( nucleus ) = Mass ( protons + neutrons ) + Potential