Nilsson Diagram from N=1 to N=6.

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The calculation use 84 Nilsson basis from 0s1/2, up to 6i13/2. Although some lines are broken, it is kind of nice. And we notices that, when the same j orbitals approach each other, they repulse. The straight line states are the (almost) pure state, which only consist with 1 spherical orbital.

Int the calculation, \kappa = 0.05 and

\mu(N) = \begin{pmatrix}   0 & N=1 \\ 0 & N=2 \\ 0.35 & N=3 \\ 0.625 & N = 4 \\ 0.625 & N=5 \\ 0.63 & N=6 \\ 0.63 & N=7 \end{pmatrix}

The parameter \mu is for adjusting the energy to match with experimental data for spherical nuclei.

The spherical energy, which is the diagonal element of the Hamiltonian of spherical basis, is

\displaystyle E_0(n,l,j,k) = n + \frac{3}{2} - \kappa(2 l\cdot s + \mu l(l+1))

\displaystyle l \cdot s = \frac{1}{2}(j(j+1) - l(l+1) - s(s+1))


Nilsson energy-deformation plots

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From the previous post, we used Mathematica to calculate the Nilsson orbitals with diagonalization method. At that time, we had a problem that Mathematica will sort the eigen energies, that create a problem that it is very difficult to track the Nilsson orbital. But now, this problem was solved by using the orthogonal property of the eigenstate. At small deformation, \beta and \beta+\delta \beta, when the \delta \beta is small enough, the eigenstates for these two deformation would be almost perpendicular. When the ordering of the eigenstates changed due to energy sorting, the dot product of the eigenstates matrix would have off-diagonal elements. e.g.

\begin{pmatrix} 1 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 \\ 0 & 1 & 0 \end{pmatrix}

This, we can use this matrix to change the order array.

Suppose at the beginning, the order array is {1,2,3}. After this matrix, the order array becomes {1,3,2}.

The tricky part is that, the element of the order array is the record for the position of  states. For example, {1,2,3,5,7,4,8,6} tells us the position of the 7th state is at the 5-th position. In order to rearrange the energy so that the n-th state is placed at the n-th position, we have to find the position of the n-th state in the order array. The position array is {1,2,3,6,4,8,5,7}, and the energy of the 7-th state can be obtained from 5th position, as we expected. What we did here, can be better illustrate in following,

Suppose the state is notated using letter, e.g. {a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h}. For an order array, such that, {a,b,c,e,g,d,h,f}, we want to find the position array to tell us the position for the x-state. Thus, we have the position array {1,2,3,6,4,8,5,7}. This transform is between the position and the state.

The letter symbols in the order array represent the states and the position of the order array is the “position” or “order” of the state energies. The number in the position array represent the “position” or “order”, and the position of the position array represents each state in order. If we use {1,a} ordered array to represent the a-state is in position 1. Thus, {a,b,c,e,g,d,h,f} can be written as {{1,a},{2,b},{3,c},{4,e},{5,g},{6,d},{7,h},{8,f}}. And {1,2,3,6,4,8,5,7} = {{1,a},{2,b},{3,c},{6,d},{4,e},{8,f},{5,g},{7,h}}. On the other hands, it is a sorting with position to sorting with state.

The matrix of the eigenvectors from \beta and \beta+\delta \beta interchange the order array, or the states. And for plotting with same color for the same state, we want the state is in order. Thus, we use the matrix to change the order of the states with respect to the position, after that, we have to sort it back according to states.


Screen Shot 2019-11-22 at 09.21.32.png




Sum rules of Nilsson orbital

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The Nilsson orbital can be decomposed into series of orbitals of  3D-harmonic oscillator, such that

\displaystyle [Nn_z\lambda]K = \sum_{N'lj} C_{N'lj}^{N n_z \lambda} |N'ljK\rangle

with eigen energy \epsilon_{Nn_z\lambda K} (\beta) and

n_z + \lambda = l

n_z + K = j

Since the Nilsson orbital is normalized

\displaystyle \sum_{N'lj} \left(C_{N'lj}^{N n_z \lambda}\right)^2 = 1

Since the number of orbital for fixed l,j is 2j+1, thus using an inverse transformation from spherical orbital to Nilsson orbital, we have,

\displaystyle \sum_{N n_z \lambda} \left(C_{N'lj}^{N n_z \lambda}\right)^2 = 2j+1

I cannot prove it, but

\displaystyle \sum_{N n_z \lambda} \epsilon_{N n_z \lambda K}(\beta) \left(C_{N'lj}^{N n_z \lambda}\right)^2 = \epsilon_{N n_z \lambda K} (0)

Thus, the single-particle energy fro Nilsson orbital is as same as the spherical orbital !!!


Quantum number of Nilsson orbital

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Using the diagonalization method using 3D harmonic oscillator as a basis to expend or approximate the Nilsson orbital, it is not easy to know the good quantum number, i.e. K[Nn_z\Lambda] , here \Lambda = m_l and K is the total spin projected on the body symmetric axis.

One way to find out is using the dominant component |NljK\rangle for small deformation and track the energy curve to the large deformation.

When I listed all the Nilsson orbital in below, it shows a clear pattern.

  1. \Lambda is the projection of orbital angular momentum, thus, l \geq \Lambda
  2. N = n_z gives the lowest energy state
  3. Larger n_z , lower energy
  4. K = 1/2 also gives the lowest energy state
  5. From observation, it is fair to assume that n_z + \Lambda = l
  6. Also, for j = l \pm 1/2, K = \Lambda \pm 1/2

NilssonOrbit to spherical.png

Notice that, in some paper, for example the 2s_{1/2} state was assigned to be 1/2[211]. I think it is no correct, because for s-orbital, it is impossible to have \Lambda = m_l = 1.

Nilsson Orbital using diagonalization method

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Long time ago, I tried to tackle the Nilsson orbital by solving the Hamiltonian analytically. However, the Hamiltonian is without LS coupling. This times, I redo the calculation according to the reference B. E. Chi, Nuclear Phyiscs 83 (1966) 97-144.

The Hamiltonian is

\displaystyle H = \frac{P^2}{2m} + \frac{1}{2}m\left( \omega_\rho^2 (x^2+y^2) + \omega_z^2 z^2 \right) + C L\cdot S + D L\cdot L


\displaystyle \omega_\rho = \omega_0 \left(1+\frac{2}{3}\delta\right)^{\frac{1}{2}} = \omega \left(\frac{3+2\delta}{3-4\delta}\right)^{1/6}

\displaystyle \omega_z = \omega_0 \left(1-\frac{4}{3}\delta\right)^{\frac{1}{2}} = \omega \left(\frac{3-4\delta}{3+2\delta}\right)^{1/3}

\displaystyle \beta = \frac{4}{3}\sqrt{\frac{\pi}{5}}\delta

\displaystyle r^2 Y_{20}(\theta, \phi) = \frac{1}{4}\sqrt{\frac{5}{\pi}} (3z^2-r^2)

The Hamiltonian becomes

\displaystyle H = -\frac{\hbar^2}{2m}\nabla^2 +\frac{1}{2} m \omega_0^2 r^2 - \frac{1}{2} m\omega_0^2 r^2 \beta Y_{20} + C L\cdot S + D L\cdot L

Set x_i^2 \rightarrow  x_i^2 \frac{\hbar}{m \omega_0} , and r^2 \rightarrow \rho^2 \frac{\hbar}{ m \omega_0}

\displaystyle \frac{H}{\hbar\omega_0} = \frac{1}{2}(-\nabla^2 + \rho^2)  - \rho^2 \beta Y_{20} - 2 \kappa L\cdot S - \mu \kappa L\cdot L


\displaystyle \frac{H_0}{\hbar\omega_0} = \frac{1}{2}(-\nabla^2 + \rho^2) - 2 \kappa L\cdot S - \mu \kappa L\cdot L

and the perturbation is

\displaystyle \frac{H_p}{\hbar\omega_0} =  - \rho^2 Y_{20}

The wavefunction for the spherical harmonic is

\displaystyle |Nljk\rangle = A r^l e^{-\frac{r^2}{2}} L_{\frac{N-l}{2}}^{l + \frac{1}{2}}(r^2) \sum_{m m_s} Y_{lm}(\theta, \phi) \chi_{\frac{1}{2} m_s} C_{lm\frac{1}{2} m_s}^{jk}

\displaystyle A = \sqrt{\frac{(\frac{N-l}{2})!(\frac{N+l}{2})! 2^{N+l+2}}{\sqrt{\pi} (N+l+1)!}}

The diagonal elements are

\displaystyle \frac{1}{\hbar \omega_0 }\langle Nljk|H_0|Nljk\rangle = N + \frac{3}{2} - \kappa \langle L\cdot S \rangle - \mu \kappa l(l+1)

where \langle L \cdot S \rangle = \frac{1}{2} ( j(j+1) - l(l+1) - \frac{3}{4} )

The off diagonal elements are

\displaystyle \frac{1}{\hbar \omega_0 }\langle Nljk|H_p|Nljk\rangle = - \langle Nljk| r^2 Y_{20}|Nljk\rangle

( I will evaluate this integral in future )

The rest is diagonalization the Hamiltonian

\displaystyle H = H_0 + \beta H_p

Here is the calculation for the 2nd harmonic for \kappa = 0.05, \mu = 0

Screen Shot 2019-07-25 at 18.25.45.png

The component of each orbital can be directly taken from the eigenvalue. Here is the [521]1/2 state. \kappa = 0.05, \mu(N=3) = 0.35, \mu(N=4) = 0.625, \mu(N=5) = 0.63

Screen Shot 2019-07-25 at 18.28.27.png


Single-particle structure of 19F

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About one year ago, I studied the nuclear structure of 19F. At that time, a lot of thing don’t understand and confused.  But now, I have a better understanding.

19F is always fascinating because the so complicated energy levels for such a relatively simple system with only 1 proton, 2 neutrons on top of a 16O core, which usually treated as double magic rigid core.

  • It ground state is 1/2+, which is unusual.
  • It is also well-deformed with \beta_2 \sim 0.4 , deduced from rotational band.
  • It also has very low lying negative parity state of 0.110 MeV. This state is also the band head of K=1/2- rotational band.
  • The rotational band of K=1/2± does not following J(J+1) curve (see the last picture from this post), this indicate the rigid rotor assumption is not so good.

3 of the rotational bands of 19F, from M. Oyamada et al., PRC11 (1975) 1578

When looking the region around 19F. From 16O a double magic core, to 20Ne very deformed nucleus (\beta_2 \sim = 0.7 ), and then go to 32Mg, the center of island of inversion. 16O, 18O, 18F, 20F are normal nuclei with normal shell order. 19F is a doorway nuclei for the complicated nuclear structure. That make the understanding the nuclear structure of 19F important.

  1. it helps to understand how deformation happen in small system,
  2. and how deformation can be described in particle-configuration.

The single-particle structure of the ground state of 19F has been studied using (p,2p) reaction. And found that the ground state to ground state transition only contain strength from 1s1/2 orbital. Thus, the wave function of 19F must bein the form

\displaystyle |^{19}F\rangle = \alpha |\pi 1s_{1/2} \rangle |^{18}O\rangle + \beta |\pi 0d_{5/2}\rangle |^{18}O^* \rangle + ...

The single-particle structures of the ground state and excited states are best studied using single-nucleon transfer. There are at least 4 directions, neutron-removal from 20F, neutron-adding from 18O, proton-removal from 20Ne, and proton-adding from 18O.  Also, a proton/neutron-removal from 19F itself to study the ground state properties.


In above figure, we also plotted the spectroscopic factors from 2 reactions, which is taken from G. Th. Kaschl et al., NPA155(1970)417, and M. Yasue et al., PRC 46 (1992) 1242. These are the most significant studies. It was suprised that the negative parity state of 0.110 meV can be populated from the 18O(3He,d) reaction. These suggest the 18O is not a good core that it has about 10% strength of two-nucleon hole in its ground state. From the 20Ne(d, 3He) reaction, the 0.110 MeV state is highly populated. Given that the ground state of 20Ne is mainly proton 1s1/2 strength due to deformation. These result indicated that the negative parity state of 19F is due to a proton-hole. Thus we have a picture for the 0.110 MeV state of 19F:


The 18O(3He,d) reaction put a 0p1/2 proton in 18O 2-proton hole state to form the negative parity state. And 20Ne(d, 3He) reaction remove a 0p1/2 proton from 20Ne.

But this picture has a problem that, how come it is so easy to remove the 0p1/2 proton from 20Ne? the p-sd shell gap is known to be around 6 MeV! or, why the proton hole in 19F has such a small energy?

In current understanding, the 2-neutron are coupled to J=0 pair, and no contribution to low-lying states. But is it true?

I suspect, the underneath reason for the proton 1s1/2 orbital is lower is because the proton 0d5/2orbital was repealed by the 2-neutron in 0d5/2 orbital due to the tensor force. And somehow, the tensor force becomes smaller in 20F when the 0d5/2 orbital is half filled.

And because the proton is in 1s1/2 and the 0d5/2 is just 0.2 MeV away, a huge configuration mixing occurred. and then, a Nilsson orbit is formed with beta = 0.4. This is an example of NN-interaction driving deformation.

Rotational Band


For deformed nuclei, it can be rotated in various angular momentum in Laboratory frame. Assume rigid body rotation, the energy is

\displaystyle E_J = \frac{1}{2}I\omega^2 = \frac{1}{2I}J^2

In QM, that becomes

\displaystyle H = \sum_{i=1}^{3} \frac{\hbar^2}{2I_i} J_i^2

For axial symmetry, I_1 = I_2 = I

\displaystyle H = \frac{\hbar^2}{2I} (J^2 - J_3^2) + \frac{\hbar^2}{2I_3}J_3^2

Remember, in deformed nuclei, the projection of J along the symmetry axis in the body-frame is K . The expected value of the Hamiltonian with state |Nn_z m_l K \rangle in the body-frame is proportional to J(J+1) for J^2 and K for J_3. i.e.

\displaystyle E_J = \frac{\hbar^2}{2I} J(J+1) + E_K

From body-frame to Lab-frame, we should apply the Wigner D-Matrix to the intrinsic wave function. ( I am not sure the following equation is correct, but the idea is rotating the body-frame wavefunction with Wigner D-Matrix to get the Lab-frame wave function. In Lab frame the total angular momentum must be a good Quantum number as rotational symmetry restored, so as J_z = M. The problem of the following equation is that the J is not a good Q-number in Nilsson wavefunction )

\displaystyle |JMK\rangle = \sum_{M} D_{MK}^{J} |Nn_zm_lK\rangle

However, the Wigner D-Matrix does not conserve parity transform:

\displaystyle D_{MK}^J \rightarrow (-1)^{J+K} D_{M-K}^{J}

In order to restored the parity, we need to include \pm K in the Lab-frame wave function.

\displaystyle |JMK\rangle = \sum_{M} \left( D_{MK}^J \pm (-1)^{J+K} D_{M-K}^J \right) |Nn_zm_lK\rangle

where + for positive parity, – for negative parity.

From the above equation, for K^\pi = 0^+ (0^-), J must be even (odd). For K > 0 , J = K, K+1, K+2, ... .

rotaional Band of 205Fm.png

rotational band of 253No.png

rotational band of 19F.png

We can see for K = 1/2 , the J = 5/2, 9/2, 11/2 are lower to the main sequence. This was explained by adding an extra term in the rotation Hamiltonian that connect \Delta K = 1 .

\displaystyle \langle JMK | H'(\Delta K = 1) |JMK \rangle

\displaystyle \rightarrow \langle D_{MK}^J | H' | D_{MK}^J \rangle+ \langle D_{M-K}^J |H'| D_{MK}^J \rangle + \langle D_{MK}^J | H' | D_{M-K}^J \rangle+ \langle D_{M-K}^J |H'| D_{M-K}^J \rangle

The term with \Delta K = 0 vanished. And since $\latex K = 1$, the only non-zero case is K = 1/2 .

A possible form of the H' (\Delta K = 1) = \frac{1}{2} \omega (J_+ + J_-) . These are the ladder operator to rise or lower the m-component by 1. In 19F case, we can think it is a single proton on top of 18O core.  A rotation core affect the proton with an additional force, similar to Coriolis force on earth.


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